Smart Financial Moves for College Graduates

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Jane Young, CFP, EA

After finishing school and hopefully landing a rewarding job, college graduates face a myriad of financial obligations and opportunities.   Here are some steps for graduates to get started in the right direction.

Create a Budget and Live Below Your Means – Based on your income, create a spending plan that leaves you with a little extra money at the end of the month.  Your budget should include saving at least 10% of your gross income.  Spend less than you earn so you are prepared for unexpected bumps in the road.  Initially this may involve renting a smaller apartment, living with roommates or driving an older car.  As your career progresses, avoid increasing expenses in lock step with earnings increases.

Establish an Emergency Fund – With the money you are saving, build and maintain an emergency fund equivalent to 4 to 6 months of expenses.

Avoid Credit Card and Consumer Debt – Pay your credit card bill in full at the end of every month.  If you can’t afford to pay for your purchases when the bill arrives then postpone or re-evaluate the purchase.   Avoid or minimize debt on vehicles and other consumer purchases.

Payoff Student Loans – Devise a plan to payoff your student loans.  Consider consolidating or refinancing your loans if it will save you money.  Consider both the interest rate and the duration when evaluating loans.  Generally, you want to pay off student loans in less than ten years.

Buy Adequate Insurance – It’s essential to have good health insurance coverage; if you aren’t covered by your employer you may be eligible for continued coverage on your parents plan.  You will also need good car insurance and renters insurance on your apartment.  Additionally, consider long term disability insurance and an umbrella liability policy.

Contribute to Your Employers Retirement Plan – Many employers offer a 401k or 403b plan to help you   save for retirement using before tax dollars.  At the very minimum contribute up to the match that your employer may provide.

Contribute to a Roth IRA – Once you start earning money you can also save for retirement by contributing to a Roth IRA.  The benefit of a Roth is since you initially invest with after tax dollars, you don’t pay taxes when the money is withdrawn in retirement.   This is a tremendous opportunity for recent college graduates because your money can grow tax free for forty or fifty years.

Travel and Have Some Fun – While you’re young and relatively independent, set aside some money to explore the world or do something adventurous.  Once you buy a house, start a family or assume more job responsibilities it’s harder to get away.

Educate Yourself on Finances – Start reading personal finance books and articles.  Here are a few books to consider; “The Money Book for the Young, Fabulous and Broke” by Suze Orman, “Personal Finance for Dummies” by Eric Tyson, and “The Millionaire Next Door “ by Thomas J. Stanley and William Danko.

Invest in Roth IRAs with Caution

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Jane Young, CFP, EA

A Roth IRA can be an excellent vehicle to save for retirement but it’s not without limitations.  With a Roth IRA you invest after-tax dollars that grow tax free and can be withdrawn tax free in retirement. This can be beneficial unless you are currently in a high tax bracket and anticipate being in a lower tax bracket in retirement.

Income limitations can be a significant downfall with Roth IRAs.  During your highest income years you may be ineligible to invest in a Roth IRA and there can be substantial penalties for making ineligible contributions.  In 2015 the income limit for someone filing single begins at $116,000 and the income limit for someone filing married filing jointly begins at $183,000.  If you make a contribution and your income exceeds the limitations, you have until your tax deadline, including extensions to withdraw your contribution.  It’s easy to inadvertently make ineligible contributions and there aren’t many red flags to alert you to the problem.  If you don’t withdraw excess contributions within the deadline you will incur a 6% penalty for every year the money remains in your Roth IRA.

Also be careful not to exceed the annual Roth IRA contribution limits.  In 2015 the contribution limit for investors under 50 is $5,500, if you are over 50 you can make an additional catch-up contribution of $1,000. Also keep in mind that Roth IRA contributions can only be made with earned income.

If your earnings exceed the income limitations and you still want to participate in a Roth IRA, you may have several options.   Your employer may offer a Roth 401k in addition to a traditional 401k.   With a Roth 401k, your employee contributions can go into the Roth option but the employer match must go into a traditional 401k.  A second option is to convert a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA but the amount converted is taxed as regular income in the year of conversion. As a refresher, with a traditional IRA and 401k you invest with before tax dollars and you pay regular income tax on the full amount when you withdraw the money.  Finally, you can consider investing in a non-deductible IRA and immediately convert it to a Roth IRA, also known as a backdoor Roth IRA.

Initially, the backdoor Roth sounds like the perfect solution because there is no income limitation on a non-deductible IRA and it’s funded with after tax dollars. Theoretically, immediate conversion to a Roth IRA should be tax free. The hitch comes from the IRS rule requiring you to aggregate all of your IRAs and proportionately include money from all IRAs in your Roth conversion.  Traditional and rollover IRAs are comprised of pre-tax dollars so the proportion of the conversion coming from these IRAs will be taxed as regular income.  Although backdoor Roth IRAs can be complex but they can be a good option if you don’t own other IRAs.

Tax Diversification Can Stretch Retirement Dollars

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Most investors understand the importance of maintaining a well-diversified asset allocation consisting of a wide variety of stock mutual funds, fixed income investments and real estate.  But you may be less aware of the importance of building a portfolio that provides you with tax diversification.

Tax diversification is achieved by investing money in a variety of accounts that will be taxed differently in retirement.   With traditional retirement vehicles such as 401k plans and traditional IRAs, your contribution is currently deductible from your taxable income, your contribution will grow tax deferred and you will pay regular income taxes upon distribution in retirement.  Generally, you can’t access this money without a penalty before 59 ½ and you must take Required Minimum Distributions at 70 ½. This may be a good option during your peak earning years when your current tax bracket may be higher than it will be in retirement.

Another great vehicle for retirement savings is a Roth IRA or a Roth 401k which is not deductible from your current earnings.  Roth accounts grow tax free and can be withheld tax free in retirement, if held for at least five years. If possible everyone should contribute some money to a Roth and they are especially good for investors who are currently in their lower earning years.

A third common way to save for retirement is in a taxable account.  You invest in a taxable account with after tax money and pay taxes on interest and dividends as they are earned.  Capital gains are generally paid at a lower rate upon the sale of the investment.  In addition to liquidity, some benefits of a taxable account include the absence of limits on contributions, the absence of penalties for early withdrawals and absence of required minimum distributions.

Once you reach retirement it’s beneficial to have some flexibility in the type of account from which you pull retirement funds.  In some years you can minimize income taxes by pulling from a combination of 401k, Roth and taxable accounts to avoid going into a higher income tax bracket.  This may be especially helpful in years when you earn outside income, sell taxable property or take large withdrawals to cover big ticket items like a car.  Another way to save taxes is to spread large taxable distributions over two years.

Additionally, by strategically managing your taxable distributions you may be able to minimize tax on your Social Security benefit.   Your taxable income can also have an impact on deductions for medical expenses and miscellaneous itemized deductions, which must exceed a set percentage of your income to become deductible.  In years with large unreimbursed medical or dental expenses you may want to withdraw less from your taxable accounts.

Finally, there may be major changes to tax rates or the tax code in the future.  A Tax diversified portfolio can provide a hedge against major changes from future tax legislation.

Retirement Tips for All Ages

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Jane Young, CFP, EA

It’s always a challenge to balance between current obligations and saving for retirement.  A good start toward meeting your retirement goals is to get your financial house in order.  Create a spending plan that helps you live below your means.  Maintain an emergency fund of at least four months of expenses and pay off high interest consumer debt.    Establish a habit of saving at least 10% of your income.  If you are getting a late start, you may need to save 15-20% of your income.

Develop a retirement plan to determine how much you need to save on a monthly basis and how large a nest egg you will need to comfortably retire.  There are many on-line calculators available to help you run retirement numbers.  However, they are only as accurate as the data that you input and the assumptions that the model uses.  You may want to hire a fee-only financial planner to run some figures for you.

Work toward maximizing contributions to your employer’s retirement plan; take advantage of any employer match that may be provided.  Once you have contributed up to the level of your employer’s match, consider contributing to a Roth IRA.  A painless way to steadily increase your contribution percentage is to increase your contribution whenever you get a raise.  If you are self-employed, or your employer doesn’t offer a retirement plan, contribute to a SEP, Simple or an IRA.  If you are maxed out, increase your contributions as the maximum contribution limits increase or you become eligible for a catch-up contribution at age 50.

Invest your retirement funds in a diversified portfolio made up of a combination of stock and bond funds that invest in companies of different sizes, in different industries and in different geographies.  Generally, your retirement savings is long term money, so avoid emotional reactions to make sudden changes based on short term market fluctuations.  Develop an investment plan that meets your timeframe and investment risk tolerance and stick to it. 

Don’t use your retirement funds as a savings account for other financial objectives.  Unless you are in a dire emergency, don’t take distributions or borrow against your retirement funds.  When you change jobs, don’t cash out your retirement plans.  Roll your funds over to an IRA or a new employer’s plan.    Avoid sacrificing your retirement savings to fund college education for your children.

As you near retirement age, there are several ways to stretch your retirement dollars.  Retirement doesn’t have to be all or nothing.  Consider a gradual step down where you work a few days a week or on a project basis.   Try to time the payoff of your mortgage with your date of retirement.  Consider downsizing to a smaller home or moving to a more economical area.  Establish a retirement spending plan that provides funds for things you value and helps you avoid frivolous spending on things that don’t really matter.

Should You Contribute to a Traditional 401(k) or a Roth 401(k)?

 

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Many large employers have started offering employees the choice between a traditional 401(k) and a Roth 401(k).  However, only a small percentage of employees have elected to contribute to a Roth 401(k).  The primary difference between the two plans is when you pay income taxes.  When you contribute to a traditional 401(k) your contribution is currently tax deductible, but you must pay regular income taxes on distributions taken in retirement.  Contributions to a Roth 401(k) are not currently deductible, but you pay no income taxes on distributions in retirement.  As with your traditional 401(k), your employer can match your Roth 401(k) contributions, but the match must go into a pre-tax account.  

There are several differences between a Roth 401(k) and a Roth IRA.  In 2014, annual contributions to a Roth IRA are limited to $5,500 plus a $1,000 catch-up contribution if you are 50 or over.  Contribution limits on Roth 401(k) plans are much higher at $17,500 plus a $5,500 catch-up contribution, if you are 50 or over.  Additionally, there are income limitations on your ability to contribute to a Roth IRA, and there no income restrictions on contributions to a Roth 401(k).   Additionally, upon reaching 70 ½ you must take a required minimum distribution from a Roth 401(k).   You are not required to take a distribution from a Roth IRA at 70 ½.  However, you do have the option to transfer your Roth 401(k) to a Roth IRA prior to 70 ½ to avoid this requirement. 

The decision on whether to invest in a Roth or traditional 401(k) depends primarily on when you want to pay taxes.  If you are currently in a low tax bracket and believe you will be in a higher tax bracket in retirement, a Roth account may be your best option.  On the other hand, if you are currently in a high tax bracket and you think you may be in a lower tax bracket in retirement, a traditional 401(k) could be your best option.  A Roth 401(k) is generally most appropriate for younger investors who are just getting started in their careers or someone who is experiencing a low income year.  People who are in their prime earning years may be better off taking the current tax deduction available with a traditional 401(k). 

Unfortunately, it’s difficult for most of us to know if our tax bracket will increase or decrease in retirement.  It is also hard to know if tax rates will increase before we reach retirement.  From a historical perspective, tax rates are currently low and some believe future rates will be increased to help cover the rising federal debt.  Amid this future uncertainty, your best option may be to split your contribution between a Roth and traditional 401(k).  This will give you some tax relief today and some tax diversification in retirement.

The Difference Between an Roth IRA and a Traditional IRA

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Jane Young, CFP, EA


One of the biggest decisions associated with saving for retirement is choosing between a Roth IRA and a Traditional IRA. The primary difference between the two IRAs is when you pay income tax. A traditional IRA is usually funded with pre-tax dollars providing you with a current tax deduction. Your money grows tax deferred, but you have to pay regular income tax upon distribution. A Roth IRA is funded with after tax dollars, and does not provide a current tax deduction. Generally, a Roth IRA grows tax free and you don’t have to pay taxes on distributions. In 2013 you can contribute up to a total of $5,500 per year plus a $1,000 catch-up contribution if you are over 50. You can make a contribution into a combination of a Roth and a Traditional IRA as long as you don’t exceed the limit. You also have until your filing date, usually April 15th, to make a contribution for the previous year. New contributions must come from earned income.
There are some income restrictions on IRA contributions. In 2013, your eligibility to contribute to a Roth IRA begins to phase-out at a modified adjusted gross income of $112,000 if you file single and $178,000 if you file married filing jointly. With a traditional IRA, there are no limits on contributions based on income. However, if you are eligible for a retirement plan through your employer, there are restrictions on the amount you can earn and still be eligible for a tax deductible IRA. In 2013 your eligibility for a deductible IRA begins to phase out at $59,000 if you are single and at $95,000 if you file married filing jointly.
Generally, you cannot take distributions from a traditional IRA before age 59 ½ without a 10% penalty. Contributions to a Roth IRA can be withdrawn anytime, tax free. Earnings may be withdrawn tax free after you reach age 59 ½ and your money has been invested for at least five years. There are some exceptions to the early withdrawal penalties. You must start taking required minimum distributions on Traditional IRAs upon reaching 70 ½. Roth IRAs are not subject to required minimum distributions.
The decision on the type of IRA is based largely on your current tax rate, your anticipated tax rate in retirement, your investment timeframe, and your investment goals. A Roth IRA may be your best choice if you are currently in a low income tax bracket and anticipate being in a higher bracket in retirement. A Roth IRA may also be a good option if you already have a lot of money in a traditional IRA or 401k, and you are looking for some tax diversification. A Roth IRA can be a good option if you are not eligible for a deductible IRA but your income is low enough to qualify for a Roth IRA.

How to Pick an IRA That’s Right for You (via Credit.com)

One of the most common questions I hear from clients is whether they should invest in a traditional IRA or a Roth IRA. Let’s start with an understanding of the difference between the two. The biggest difference between a traditional IRA and a Roth IRA is when you pay taxes. I like to think of it…


» Read more

“What is Modern Retirement and Will You be Ready?” Join us on September 7th for our next Pinnacle Fireside Chat.

Please mark your calendars for our next Pinnacle Financial “Fireside Chat”, to be held on Wednesday, September 7th from 7:30am – 9:00am.

Jane will discuss the characteristics of modern retirement and how to plan for it. She will explore different approaches to retirement and some of the factors to be considered. She will also explain the various plans available to help you save for retirement.

The Fireside Chat sessions are informational only (no sales!) and interactive — a great opportunity to learn new things and ask questions in a relaxed environment. These sessions are open to your family and friends, so please feel free to pass this email along to anyone that you think might be interested in attending.

Please call Judy (719-260-9800) if you would like to attend this session on September 7th, as space is limited.

We hope to see you on September 7th! Coffee and donuts will be served!

Year End Financial Planning Tips

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Jane M. Young, CFP, EA

Roth Conversion –
The income limitations on converting a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA have been eliminated and taxes due on a Roth conversion, processed in 2010, can be paid in 2011 and 2012.

Required Minimum Distribution –
A required minimum distribution on your IRA and 401k/403b is required every year once you attain 70 ½.

Maximize your retirement contributions –
Be sure to maximize your retirement plan contributions for 2010. Below are the maximum contributions for your 401k and IRA contributions for 2010. You have until April 15th to contribute to your IRA.

401k – $16,500 plus a $5,500 catch-up provision if you are over 50
IRA – $5,000 plus a $1,000 catch-up provision if you are over 50 (income limits apply)
Simple – $11,500 plus a $2,500 catch-up provision if you are over 50

Adjust retirement contributions for 2011 –
There is no change to 401k and IRA contribution limits between 2010 and 2011. However, if you have turned 50 you can make a catch-up contribution. A change in your income may also impact your ability to contribute to an IRA.

Harvest Tax Losses –
If you have been thinking about selling some poor performing stocks or mutual funds, do so before the end of the year to take advantage of tax losses in 2010. However, if capital gains rates increase in 2011 it may be more advantageous to offset gains in 2011.

Charity Contributions –
Go through your closets and garage before the end of the year and donate any unwanted items to get a nice deduction on your tax return. When you drop off your items be sure to get a receipt. When making a charitable contribution, consider donating appreciated stock rather than cash.

Take advantage of the annual gift allowance –
In 2010 you can gift up to $13,000 per person without paying gift tax or impacting your estate tax exemption.

Make 529 Contributions –
Contributions made to the Colorado 529 plan are deductible on your state tax return. Money can be contributed into the Colorado 529 plan for tuition that is payable in 2011.

Review your expenses and draft a new budget –
Everyone should review their expenses and revise their budget at least once a year. December is a good time of year to review historical spending habits and make adjustments to your budget for the coming year. It is difficult to establish saving goals without a good understanding of what is available after your non-discretionary expenses.

Set financial goals for 2011 –
I recommend setting new personal and financial goals at the beginning of every year. Think of it as personal strategic planning. Set some long term goals for 3-5 years then identify some action plans for the next twelve months.

Adjust tax withholdings for 2011 –
Adjust your tax withholdings or estimated taxes for anticipated changes in income and deductions in 2011.

Organize 2010 tax documents –
Year end is a good time to create a folder for all of the 2010 tax documents you will be receiving and to start organizing your expenses and receipts. You will have everything thing in one place when it comes time to complete your tax return.

Make adjustments for changes in family circumstances – birth, death, marriage, dependents, and retirement –
Major changes in your life circumstances may result in numerous changes in your financial situation. For example a birth, marriage, or death will probably necessitate a change in your will and beneficiary designations. It also may impact your income tax withholdings. The birth of a child may result in significant tax benefits. With the birth of a child you also may want to consider starting a college fund and a change in life or disability insurance.

Spend FSA accounts –
With many companies, flexible savings accounts cannot be carried over into the next year so be sure to spend the money in your FSA account this year, before you lose it.

Consider the impact of possible changes in the tax law –
If the Bush tax cuts are not extended, there is a possibility that the capital gains rate will increase from 15% to 20%, that tax rates will increase, and that some tax deductions will disappear. These possibilities need to be considered in making your year end financial decisions.

Attend a Financial Fireside Chat with Jane and Linda on December 2nd to discuss “Year End Financial Planning Tips and Money Saving Ideas for the Holidays”

 

You and a guest are invited to a Financial Fireside Chat with Jane and Linda at our office, from 7:30 – 9:00 am on Thursday, December 2nd to discuss “Year End Financial Planning Tips and Money Saving Ideas for the Holidays.”

A Financial Fireside chat is an informal discussion over coffee and donuts, where our clients and guests can learn about various financial topics in a casual non-threatening environment. This is free of charge and purely educational. There will be absolutely no sales of products or services during this session. We will provide plenty of time for informal discussion.

The Fireside Chat will be held at the Pinnacle Financial Concepts, Inc. offices at 7025 Tall Oak Drive, Suite 210. Please RSVP with Judy at 260-9800.

We are looking forward to seeing you on Thursday, December 2nd to learn about and discuss some great year end financial planning ideas.

A Money Moment with Jane – A Few Financial Planning Suggestions for the Fall

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By Jane M. Young, CFP, EA

 

  • Required Minimum Distributions were not required for 2009.  However, if you are at least 70½ you will be required to take a distribution in 2010.

 

  • If you are planning to convert some of your regular IRA to a Roth IRA, do so in 2010 to spread the taxes over 2011 and 2112.

 

  • Have you maximized your Roth IRA and 401k contribution?  The 2010 contribution limit for the Roth is $5,000 plus a $1,000 catch-up provision if you are 50 or older.  The 2010 contribution limit for 401k plans is $16,500 plus a $5,500 catch-up provision if you are 50 or older.

 

  • This is a good time to do some tax planning to make sure your withholdings or estimates are adequate to cover the taxes you will owe in April. 

 

  • Do you have any underperforming stocks or mutual funds that should be sold to take advantage of a tax loss in 2010?

 

  • Now is the time to go through your home for items to be donated to charity.  These can provide a nice deduction on your 2010 tax return.

 

  • Start planning for Christmas now and save money by working to a plan. 

 

To Convert or Not Convert – Looking Beyond the Roth IRA Conversion Calculator

Jane M. Young, CFP, EA

As I mentioned in the previous article on Roth IRAs, with a Roth IRA you pay income tax now and not upon distribution. With a traditional IRA you defer taxes today and pay income taxes upon deferral. When you convert a Traditional IRA to a Roth IRA you must pay regular income taxes on the amount that is converted. The advisability of converting to a Roth depends on the length of time you have until you take distributions, your tax rate today and your anticipated tax rate upon retirement and your projected return on your investments.

When you run your numbers through one of the numerous calculators available on the internet you may or may not see a big savings in doing a Roth Conversion. However, there are several other factors that may tilt the scale toward converting some of your money to a Roth.

• Income tax rates are currently very low and there is a general consensus that they will increase considerably by the time you start taking distributions. With a Roth conversion you pay the tax now at the lower rates and take tax free distributions when the tax rates are higher.

• The stock market is still down about 25% from where it was in August of 2008. There is a lot of cash sitting on the sidelines waiting to be invested once consumer confidence is restored. You can pay taxes on money in your traditional IRA while the share prices are low and take a tax free distribution from your Roth down the road when the market has rebounded.

• You may have a sizable portion of your portfolio in tax deferred retirement accounts on which you will have to take required minimum distributions (RMD). This could put you into a much higher tax bracket. By converting some of your traditional IRA into a Roth you can get some tax diversification on your portfolio. This will lower your RMD– because there is no RMD on a Roth IRA. Diversifying your portfolio between a traditional IRA and a Roth IRA enables you to take your distributions from the most appropriate pot of money in any given year.

For more information on Roth IRAs and the new tax laws for 2010 please review the articles previously posted under Roth IRAs.

What You Should Be Doing Now!

Jane M. Young CFP, EA

1. Start by re-evaluating your monthly expenses to determine how much money you need for necessary expenses. Then determine how much you have remaining after you cover these expenses.

2. During difficult economic times, like the present, most people should maintain an emergency fund of at least 6 months of expenses. If you have an exceptionally secure job you may be able to drop it down to 3 months. Always be sure to sure to maintain an adequate emergency fund.

3. Once your emergency fund is established pay off any high interest credit cards.

4. Put aside money for special one time expenses such as a new roof, a new car or a down payment on a house. If you don’t own your own home give some serious consideration to saving up to buy one. Decide how much you want to save on a monthly basis and start a systematic savings plan.

5. Now you can start investing! Determine how much you can afford to invest on a monthly basis. Most people should start by investing in their company retirement plan up to the level that the company will match. If you can afford to invest beyond the level of your company match, invest up to the maximum allowed in a Roth IRA. This should be done on a monthly basis to take advantage of dollar cost averaging – investing the same amount every month. The 2009 contribution limit for a Roth IRA is $5,000 if you are under 50 and $6000 if you are over 50. There is an income limit on your eligibility to contribute to a Roth IRA based on your adjusted gross income. For 2009, your eligibility to contribute begins to phase-out at $166,000, if you are married filing jointly and $105,000 if you are single.

If you still have money to invest after maximizing your Roth IRA, resume contributing to your company retirement plan up to the maximum amount. The maximum contribution limit for a 401k in 2009 is $16,500 if you are under 50 and $22,000 if you are over 50.

Invest your money in a diversified set of mutual funds. Establish an asset allocation consistent with your timeframe and risk tolerance. For most individuals this will vary from 50% to 80% in stock mutual funds, with the balance in fixed income investments. The market is still priced very low and it is a great time to buy stock mutual funds. However, the market will be very volatile over the next 6 – 9 months. Dollar cost averaging into your retirement plans will help you take advantage of this volatility.

This is very general advice and everyone’s situation is unique. Treat this advice as a general guideline and adapt it to your own situation or consult a Certified Financial Planner for guidance.

Roth IRAs – Part II – The Major Differences Between a Roth IRA and a Traditional IRA

Jane M. Young, CFP, EA

The primary difference between a Traditional IRA and a Roth IRA is when you pay income tax. A traditional IRA and a traditional retirement plan are funded with pre-tax dollars and you pay taxes on your withdrawals. A Roth IRA is funded with after tax dollars and you don’t pay taxes on your withdrawals. The decision to buy a Roth or a Traditional IRA is largely based on your current and future tax rates, your investment timeframe and your investment goals. The Roth IRA is usually the more advantageous of the two options but it depends on your individual situation.

Traditional IRA: (tax me later)

• Funded with pre-tax dollars therefore it provides a current tax deduction
• Earnings are tax deferred
• Distributions taxed at regular income tax rates, penalty if withdrawn before 59 1/2
• Required minimum distributions must be taken beginning at age 70 1/2
• Income limit on contributions begins at, if participant is in a retirement plan, $89,000 MFJ and $55,000 if single.
• Annual contribution limit is $5000 if under 50 and $6000 if over 50
• Many IRAs are created as a result of a rollover from a company retirement plan such as a 401k – very similar in tax structure.

Roth IRA: (tax me now)

• Funded with after tax dollars, does not provide a current tax deduction
• Earnings tax exempt (after five years or 59 ½)
• Contributions can be withdrawn penalty and tax free
• Earnings can be withdrawn tax free after five years or 59 1/2
• No required minimum distribution
• Income limit on contribution begins at $166,000 MFJ and $105,000 if single
• Annual contribution limit is $5000 if under 50 and $6000 if over 50

Part III of this series will address the pros and cons of converting a Roth IRA to a Traditional IRA.

Start Planning Now! Income Limits on Roth IRA Conversions to be Lifted in 2010 – Part 1

Jane M. Young, CFP, EA

Beginning in January 2010 the income limit of $100,000 AGI (adjusted gross income) on converting a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA will be lifted. This is a huge opportunity for many who have been unable to contribute to a Roth or convert to a Roth due to income restrictions. Normally, when one converts a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA the amount converted is added to gross income in the year of conversion. However, for conversions made in 2010 the government is allowing you to spread out the payment of taxes over the 2011 and 2012 tax years.

Why should you care about this now, prior to 2010? There are several things you can do to prepare for this opportunity. This is a great time to fund your traditional IRA, non-deductible traditional IRA or your 401k plan, if you are planning to retire or change companies soon, in anticipation of converting it to a Roth in 2010. You will need cash to pay the taxes associated with converting to a Roth IRA, so you should be incorporating this additional need for liquidity into your financial planning today.

This is the first in a series of postings on Roth IRAs and Roth IRA conversions.

Three Significant Changes to Your Retirement Plans in 2009 and 2010

Jane M. Young, CFP, EA

1. No required minimum distribution in 2009 for IRA, 401k, 403b, 457b, 401k and profit sharing plans. This does not apply to annuitized defined benefit plans.

2. If you are older than 70 ½, in 2009 you can make charitable gifts from your IRA without the payment being included in your adjusted gross income. The distribution must be a “qualified charitable distribution”, which means it must be made directly from the IRA owner to the charitable institution. This is especially beneficial if you claim a standard deduction and were unable to deduct charitable contributions by itemizing.

3. Beginning in 2010 individuals earning over $100,000 in modified adjusted gross income will be able to convert traditional IRAs to Roth IRAs. Modified adjusted gross income is the bottom line on the first page of the 1040 tax form. Income from a conversion in 2010 may be reported equally over 2011 and 2012.

While there are many benefits to converting from a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA the conversion will increase your adjusted gross income (AGI) which can have some unintended consequences. An increase in AGI may impact the taxability of your social security, phase-outs on itemized deductions, education and your tax bracket.

I will write more about Roth IRA conversions in a future blog.