- Keep It Simple – Don’t invest in anything that you don’t understand. Most investments aren’t that complicated. Be very cautious if you are considering an investment with pages and pages of difficult to understand legal verbiage. You can bet the small print wasn’t added for your benefit.
- Pigs Get Fat, Hogs Get Slaughtered – The biggest risk to sensible investing is fear and greed. If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is. Don’t fall for offers with exceptionally high returns. If someone promises you a return significantly higher than the market rate, there’s a catch. It’s either a scam or there are huge risks involved. Perform some due diligence to understand why the returns are higher than normal.
- Keep Your Emotions in Check – Establish and stick to an allocation that meets your timeframe and risk tolerance. The stock market will rise and fall. Don’t fall into the trap of panic selling when the market falls, only to turn around and buy when the market’s back on top. You don’t make much money selling low and buying high.
- Diversify, Diversify, Diversify – At a minimum, your net worth should reflect a combination of stock mutual funds, fixed income investments, and real estate. You should hold a large number of different investments within each category. For example, your stock portfolio should be comprised of small, medium, and large companies in a variety of different industries in the U.S. and abroad. A diversified portfolio provides a buffer against volatility. Each category responds differently to changing economic and political conditions.
- Invest Based on When Money is Needed – Maximize your risk/return ratio by designing a portfolio that supports your investment time horizon. Generally, money needed in the short term should be invested in safe, less volatile investments. Your return may be limited, but your principal will be safe. With long term money, you can take more risk and potentially earn a higher return. With a longer time horizon you can ride out the fluctuations in the stock market.
- Be Tax Smart – Consider tax consequences when buying and selling investments, and maximize your contributions to tax advantaged retirement plans. Within taxable accounts, municipal bonds and mutual funds with a low turnover ratio are good options. Also, watch for opportunities to harvest tax losses.
- Avoid High Fees, Commissions and Surrender Charges – High fees, commissions, and surrender charges can eat into your return and limit your flexibility. Review prospectuses and investment reports to fully understand the fees and penalties associated with the funds or products you are considering.
- Stocks Don’t Have Memories – Don’t keep a poor performing security with hopes it will return to its original purchase price. Stock and stock mutual funds should be evaluated based their future potential. There is no correlation between the current value of a stock and what you paid for it.
ETFs (Exchange-Traded Funds) and mutual funds are investment vehicles that enable investors to pool their money to buy a collection of stocks or bonds. This makes it practical for the average investor to diversify their holdings across a large number of companies or entities. Mutual funds can be actively or passively managed. Generally, ETFs are passively managed and are designed to represent a specific index or category of securities, similar to an index mutual fund. ETFs are especially useful in focusing on narrow sectors of the market that frequently aren’t offered by mutual funds. ETFs can be especially useful to invest in a specific country or industry sector.
Mutual funds and ETFs differ in how they are traded. Mutual funds are bought and sold through a mutual fund company. ETFs are bought and sold on the market, between investors. Shares in a mutual fund are traded based on the price at the close of the day. ETFs can be traded throughout the day, anytime the market is open. This is similar to the manner in which individual stocks are traded.
Generally, ETFs have lower fees than mutual funds because of lower overhead costs. This is especially true when comparing ETFs to actively managed mutual funds. However, when you purchase an ETF you must pay a brokerage fee every time a transaction is made. Mutual funds may be more efficient if you are planning to dollar cost average, or buy shares over a period of time.
Due to structural differences, ETFs can provide greater tax efficiencies than mutual funds. ETFs are traded on the market between investors, much like individual stocks. When investors buy and sell shares of ETFs, shares are exchanged between one another; there is no taxable sale of stocks or bonds within the ETF. On the other hand, mutual funds are traded within a mutual fund company. If several investors decide to sell, the manager may be forced to sell stock or bonds within the fund to cover the redemption. This is a taxable event that may result in capital gains that must be passed on to the shareholders.
Additionally, the structure of an ETF allows for the creation and redemption of shares with in-kind transactions. Capital gains taxes are avoided because there is no taxable sale of stocks or bonds within the ETF when an in-kind redemption is done.
Finally, ETFs are generally tax efficient because they are passively managed, similar to an index fund. Passively managed investments track to an index and don’t do a lot of trading. With less trading, the investor should incur less capital gains while holding the ETF. Mutual fund investors can also minimize their exposure to capital gains by purchasing index funds and tax efficient funds that do minimal trading. Both Mutual Funds and ETFs that invest in bonds or dividend paying stocks must pass interest and dividend income on to shareholders.
Market timing is one of the most detrimental ways an investor can negatively impact his stock market returns. History shows that investors do not effectively time the market. For the last nine years, DALBAR, Inc., a market research firm, has conducted an annual study on market returns called the Quantitative Analysis of Investor Behavior (QAIB). This study has consistently found that returns earned by the individual investor are significantly below that of the stock market indices. The 2013 QAIB report found that during the 20 year period between 1998 and 2012, the average mutual fund investor lagged the stock market indices by 3.96%. This is a significant improvement over the period between 1991 and 2010, in which the average investor lagged the mutual fund indices by 5.1%. According to Dalbar, “No matter what the state of the mutual fund industry, boom or bust: Investment results are more dependent on investor behavior than on fund performance. Mutual fund investors who hold on to their investments are more successful than those who time the market.”
The stock market is counterintuitive in that the best time to sell is usually when the market seems to be doing well, and the best time to buy is usually when the market is doing poorly. As investors, our decisions are frequently driven by emotion rather than cognitive reasoning. We frequently overreact to emotions of fear and greed which throws numberswiki.com
us onto an investment roller coaster. When the stock market goes up we start to feel more and more optimistic, and as the market rises higher we get caught up in a state of euphoria. Our sense of greed kicks in and we don’t want to miss the opportunity to make money, so we buy when the market is high. The market may stay up for a while but eventually the economic cycle changes and stock prices start to drop. Initially we rationalize that this is temporary, or just a minor correction. As the market continues to drop we become more and more concerned. Soon our sense of fear kicks in, we start to panic and we sell at the wrong time. If we don’t recognize the dangers of this emotion driven cycle we are deemed to repeat it.
In addition to our intrinsic emotional response, we are bombarded by sensationalized news and advertising campaigns to influence us to change the course of our investment strategy. Don’t get caught up in the hype about the next big investment craze. Your best course of action is to develop and follow an investment strategy that supports your tolerance for risk and investment timeframe. The stock market is volatile and is best suited for long term investing. Time is needed to absorb fluctuations in the market. Keep short term money in fixed income investments. You will be less tempted to time the market in a well-diversified portfolio specifically designed for your investment time horizon.
A variable annuity is an investment contract with an insurance company where you invest money into your choice of a variety of sub-accounts. Sub-accounts are similar to mutual funds, where money from a large number of investors is pooled and invested in accordance with specific investment objectives. Like mutual funds, sub-accounts may invest in different categories of stock or interest earning investments.
One characteristic of a variable annuity is the tax deferral of gains until the funds are withdrawn. However, upon distribution the gains are taxable at regular income tax rates, as opposed to capital gains rates that may be available for mutual funds. Additionally, there is no step-up in basis upon death for assets held in variable annuities.
Variable annuities are generally more appropriate for non-retirement accounts because gains within a retirement account are already tax deferred. Traditional retirement accounts and Roth IRAs meet the tax deferral needs for most investors. However, in some cases a variable annuity may be attractive to a high income investor who has maximized his traditional retirement options and needs additional opportunities for tax deferral. This is especially true for an investor who is currently in a high tax bracket and expects to be in a lower tax bracket in retirement.
When investing in variable annuities, with non-retirement money, there is no requirement to take a Required Minimum Distribution at 70 ½. However, there is generally a 10% penalty on withdrawals made before 59 1/2. Trades can be made within a variable annuity account without immediate tax consequences. The entire gain will be taxable upon withdrawal. There is no annual contribution limit for variable annuities, and you can make non-taxable transfers between annuity companies using a 1035 exchange. However, you may have to pay a surrender charge if you have held the annuity for less than seven to ten years, and you purchased it from a commissioned adviser. Before buying an annuity, read the fine print to fully understand all of the fees and penalties associated with the product. Most variable annuities have early withdrawal penalties and a higher expense structure than mutual funds.
A variable annuity may be an option for someone who wants to purchase an insurance policy to buffer the risk of losing money in the market. For many investors, due to the long term growth in the stock market, this guarantee may be come at too high a price. Some investors are willing to pay additional fees in exchange for the peace of mind that a guaranteed withdrawal benefit can provide. Guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefits (GMWB) can be very complex and have some significant restrictions. Additionally, some products offer a guaranteed death benefit for an extra fee. Read the contract carefully and make sure you understand the product before you buy.
Due to the high costs, lack of flexibility, complexity and unfavorable tax treatment variable annuities are not beneficial for many investors.