Financial Mistakes to Avoid as You Approach Retirement

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Jane Young, CFP, EA

As you enter your 50s it becomes increasingly important to incorporate retirement planning into the management of your finances.  Your 50s and 60s will probably be your highest earning years at a time when expenses associated with raising children and home ownership may be tapering off.  It’s crucial to take advantage of the opportunities during this time to shore up your retirement nest egg.

One significant retirement mistake is the failure to assess your current financial situation and understand how much is needed to meet your retirement goals.  Many underestimate the amount of money required to cover retirement expenses which may result in delaying retirement.   Consider hiring an advisor to do some retirement planning and help you understand your options, how much money is needed, and what trade-offs may be required to meet your goals.

Another common mistake is to move all of your retirement funds into extremely conservative options, as you approach retirement.  With the potential of spending 30 to 40 years in retirement, it’s advisable to keep a long term perspective.  Consider keeping your short term money in more conservative options and investing your long term money in a well-diversified portfolio that can continue to grow and stay ahead of inflation.  As you approach retirement, it’s also important to avoid making emotional decisions in response to short term swings in the stock market.   Emotional reactions frequently result in selling low and buying high which can be harmful to your portfolio.

Many in their 50s and 60s have more disposable income than at any other stage of life.  Avoid temptation and be very intentional about your spending.   Avoid increasing your cost of living with fancy cars and toys or an expensive new house as you approach retirement.  Instead, consider using your disposable income to pay down your mortgage or pay off consumer debt to reduce your retirement expenses.

Another common pitfall is spending too much on adult children including your child’s college education.  The desire to help your children is natural and admirable but you need to understand what you can afford and how it will impact your long term financial situation.  Place a cap on how much you are willing to contribute for college and encourage your kids to consider less expensive options like attending a community college or living at home during their first few years of college.   They have a lifetime to pay-off reasonable student loans but you have limited time to replenish your retirement funds.

Finally, a failure to care for your health can be financially devastating.  If you are healthy you will probably be more productive and energetic.   This can result in improved job performance with more opportunities and higher income.  If you are in poor health, you may be forced to retire early, before you are financially ready.   You also may face significant medical expenses that could erode your retirement funds.

Value Provided by Financial Advisor Can Exceed Fee

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Many things can trigger the decision to hire a financial planner.  You may need some direction on how to prioritize your spending and saving to better prepare for the future.  You may be too busy or uninterested in managing your own finances.   You may experience a sudden life change such as a marriage, divorce, inheritance or retirement.   Your situation may be getting complicated and you want a professional opinion or you lack the technical expertise to continue managing things on your own.

Although, you may need a financial planner you may be hesitant to pay the fee.   Fee-only planners can be compensated using a flat fee, a percentage of assets or an hourly rate.   The fee will typically be around 1% of assets for on-ongoing advice.   A recent Vanguard study may help put your mind at ease.   The study found that the added value provided by a fee-only planner can far exceed the cost.

In 2014 Vanguard published the results of a study they conducted on the value added by advisors.  The study found that financial advisors can add up to about 3% in net returns for their clients by focusing on a wealth management framework they refer to as Advisor’s Alpha©.  The study found that an advisor can add to a client’s net returns if their approach includes the following five principles: being an effective behavioral coach, applying an asset location strategy, employing cost effective investments, maintaining the proper allocation through rebalancing and implementing a spending strategy.  These are just a few of the practices and principles followed by most comprehensive fee-only planners.

The exact amount of added return will vary based on client circumstances and implementation.  It should not be viewed as an annual return but as an average over time.  The opportunity for the greatest value comes during periods of extreme market duress or euphoria.  Additionally, Vanguard found that paying a fee for advice using this framework can add significant value in comparison to what the investor had previously experienced with or without an advisor.

Vanguard’s framework places emphasis on relationship oriented services that encourage discipline and reason, in working with clients who may otherwise be undisciplined and reactionary.  Rather than focusing on short term performance there is a focus on sticking to the plan and avoiding emotional overreaction. Advisors, acting as behavior coaches, can help discourage clients from chasing returns and focus instead on asset allocation, rebalancing, cash flow management and tax-efficient investment strategies.

The study found that when advisors place emphasis on stewardship and a strong relationship with the client, investors were less likely to make decisions that hurt their returns and negatively impacted their ability to reach long term financial goals.  According to Vanguard “Although this wealth creation will not show up on any client statement, it is real and represents the difference in clients’ performance if they stay invested according to their plan as opposed to abandoning it.”

Tips from the Wealthy on How to Get Rich

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Jane Young, CFP, EA

You don’t have to be incredibly intelligent and born into the Rockefeller family to attain wealth.   Below are some pointers commonly shared by wealthy people on how to manage your life and your money to reach financial independence.  There is no magic, achieving financial security involves straight forward, common sense actions to gradually build your net worth.

  1. Write Down Your Goals: It’s great to dream about what you want to achieve but to accomplish something you need to put your goals into writing and create an action plan to attain them.
  2. Control Your Expenses: Take the time to understand and manage your expenses and create a budget that supports your goals.   Spend less than you earn and develop good saving habits.  Keep your expenses in check when things are going well and avoid automatically increasing your expenses as your income grows.
  3. Don’t Buy Status: Don’t buy things to look rich or to impress your friends.  Most wealthy people drive older model used vehicles and live in modest homes.  Use your money to save for the future and spend on what really matters.
  4. Educate Yourself: Getting a good education and selecting the right career is a huge factor in attaining wealth.  A good education can result in a more rewarding job in a field you enjoy.  If you enjoy your work you are more likely to excel and earn more money.  If you are in a dead end job or a career you don’t enjoy consider going back to school to transition into a career for which you have more passion.
  5. Be Patient and Maintain a Long Term Perspective – The key to successful investing is having the patience to ride out fluctuations in the market. Resist the temptation to chase returns and time the market.  Invest for the long term and let your portfolio grow over time.  Stay the course and avoid making decisions triggered by emotions.
  6. Manage Risk and Return – Balance your desire for high return with the risk involved. Maintain a diversified portfolio with adequate short term liquidity to get you through rough spots in the market.   Rebalance on an annual basis to keep your portfolio diversified.  Take a disciplined approach to investing and avoid high risk investments that promise a return that may be too good to be true.
  7. Start your own business – According to Forbes nearly all of the people on their list of billionaires made their money through involvement with a business they or their family had started. Owning your own business may seem too risky but it can provide you with an opportunity for higher earnings and greater control over your financial future.
  8. Avoid Complex Investments – Avoid investing in anything that seems overly complicated or that you don’t fully understand. Complex investments often come with  greater risk, a lack of control, limited marketability, limited transparency and hidden fees.

Selecting the Right Asset Allocation – Part 2

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Your asset allocation is the basic structure of your investment portfolio defining the target percentage you want to hold in different categories of assets.   Start creating your asset allocation by deciding how much you want to invest in the two major categories, stock mutual funds and interest earning assets.  Next break your allocation down into more specific categories including cash, CDs, bonds, large cap stock, mid-cap stock, small cap stock, international stock, emerging markets stock and real estate.  Setting an appropriate, well diversified asset allocation helps you balance risk and return within your portfolio.  Your asset allocation may change over time as your financial circumstances change.  However, avoid changing your allocation too frequently based on short term fluctuations in the market.

The appropriate allocation depends on several factors including your age and investment time horizon, your financial goals, other risk factors in your life, your experience with investing and your emotional risk tolerance.  Regardless of your investment goals, you need to maintain an emergency fund of readily available funds equal to at least four months of expenses.

Your financial goals are a major determinant in setting your allocation.  Identify your major financial goals and when money is needed to support these goals.  Design an asset allocation to meet these goals.  Money needed in the short term should be held in safer, interest earning investments. The stock market should only be used for long term needs – generally at least five to seven years out.

You may be able to assume more risk in your portfolio if the timetable for your goals is flexible.  The timeframe for money to cover things like college education or your emergency fund may be firm but there may be some flexibility on when you take a major vacation, remodel your home or plan to retire.   Money needed for retirement is generally spent over twenty or thirty years.  You won’t need your entire nest egg on the first day.

Your allocation is also dependent on risks taken in other areas of your life.  For example, if you work in a volatile career with unpredictable earnings, own a small business or own rental property, you may want to reduce the risk in your investment portfolio. On the other hand, if you have a secure job and anticipate a generous pension, you may be comfortable taking more risk.

Regardless of your situation you need to feel emotionally comfortable with your allocation. If you are constantly worried about market fluctuations you may need a more conservative allocation.   Historically the stock market has trended upward, but there will be years with negative returns.  Create an allocation that gives you adequate emotional security to ride out swings in the stock market and helps you avoid selling when the market is down. If you are new to investing, start out slowly and test the water to see how you will react in a volatile market.

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