Financially Get a Jump Start on 2017

office pictures may 2012 002The beginning of a new year is a good time to evaluate your finances and take steps to improve your financial situation.  Start by reviewing your living expenses and comparing them to your income.  Are you living within your means and spending money in areas that are important to you?  Look for opportunities to prioritize your spending where you will get the most benefit and joy.

This is also a good time to calculate your net worth to see if it has increased over the previous year and evaluate progress toward your goals.  To calculate your net worth, add up the value of all of your assets including real estate, bank accounts, vehicles and investment accounts and subtract all outstanding debts including mortgages, credit card balances, car loans and student loans.

With a better understanding of your net worth and cash flow you are ready to set some financial goals.  Start with the low hanging fruit including paying off outstanding credit card balances and establishing an emergency fund.  Maintain an emergency fund equal to at least three months of expenses.   Once your credit cards are paid off you may want to focus on paying off other high interest debt.

After paying off debt and creating an emergency fund, it’s advisable to get in the habit of saving at least 10% of your income.   Saving 20% may be a better goal if you are running behind on saving for retirement.

Take advantage of opportunities to defer taxes by contributing to your company’s 401k.  If you are self- employed create a retirement plan or contribute to an IRA.  Take advantage of any match that your employer may provide for contributing to your retirement plan.  If you are already making retirement contributions, evaluate your ability to increase your contributions.  If you have recently turned 50 you may want to increase your contribution to take advantage catch-up provisions that raise the contribution limits for individuals over 50.

As the new year begins you also may want to evaluate your career situation.  Saving and investing is just part of the equation, your financial security is largely dependent on career choices.  Look for opportunities to enhance your career that may result in a higher salary or improved job satisfaction.  It may be time to ask for a raise or a promotion or to explore opportunities in a new field.  Consider taking some classes to sharpen your skills for your current job or to prepare you for a new more exciting career.

You may have additional goals such as buying a new home, contributing to your children’s college fund, remodeling your house, or taking a big vacation.  Strategically think about your priorities and what will bring you satisfaction.  Start the year with intention, identify some impactful financial goals and create a plan.  Formulate an action plan with specific steps to help you meet your goals.

Working Part Time in Retirement Becoming the Norm

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Jane Young, CFP, EA

With the possibility of living another 20 to 30 years in retirement, many baby boomers are considering part time work in retirement.  According to a report by the Transamerica Center for Retirement studies, 82% of people in their 60’s either expect to work past 65, already are doing so or don’t plan to retire.   Likewise, a 2013 Gallop poll found that 61% of people currently employed said they plan to work part time in retirement.  While many seek part time work for financial reasons, working in retirement can also provide tremendous psychological and health benefits.

With the loss of traditional pension benefits many retirees need an extra cushion to cover retirement expenses.   Working part time can provide many financial benefits including the reduction of distributions from your retirement account.  Part time work can also help you avoid drawing from your portfolio when the market is down and the additional income can make you more comfortable increasing the risk in your portfolio, with the potential for higher returns.   Another benefit of working part time is the opportunity to delay Social Security benefits till age 70, when you can earn a larger benefit.  Additionally, part time earnings can be used to improve your future cash flow by paying off your mortgage, credit card debt, vehicle loans, and proactively address household maintenance and repairs.

Aside from the financial benefits, numerous studies have found that people who work in retirement are happier and healthier.  Part time work can give you a sense of purpose, identity and relevance.   It can also replace the social interaction that is lost when you retire.  A 2009 study in the Journal of occupational Health Psychology found that those who worked in retirement experienced better health.   Additionally, a study reported by the American Psychological Association in 2014 found that working in retirement can delay cognitive deterioration.

If you are considering part time work during retirement, start developing a plan before leaving your current position.  Leverage and expand your existing network while you are still working.   Your current employer may be interested in retaining you on a part time basis or may be aware of other opportunities for you.

Think of creative ways to utilize your skills, experience and passion to find or create a job that you will enjoy.  You may want to start your own business doing free-lance work or consulting.  Consider turning your hobbies or interests into a business such as tutoring, handyman services, party planning, programming or working for a golf course.  If you have management experience you may be able to fill a gap as a temporary executive while an organization is going through a transition.

Keep an open mind, be flexible and stay connected with your network.  Here are a few sites that can be helpful in finding part time work; Retirementjobs.com, Flexjobs.com and Coolworks.com.  Please use extreme caution when using internet job sites; many are scams that look legitimate.

The Secret to Financial Freedom is Living below Your Means

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Over the years I have observed that a comfortable retirement and financial security can best be achieved with reasonable lifestyle choices.  One of the biggest detriments toward reaching financial independence is spending beyond your means and spending on things you don’t really need.  You don’t necessarily need millions of dollars to retire comfortably but you need to follow a lifestyle that minimizes your living expenses while allowing you to indulge on things or experiences that are really important to you.  Good financial planning requires a balance between current expenses and saving for the future. 

Many Americans have a habit of systematically increasing expenses in lock step with salary increases.  Along with a big raise or promotion comes the inclination to buy a bigger house or a new car.  As we progress through our careers, earning a higher income, we continually take on more financial obligations becoming hand-cuffed to our jobs and our bills.  By increasing your lifestyle every time your income increases you can get caught up on an endless treadmill, trapped with a lot of debt for a house and cars that may be more than you really need.  I’m all for enjoying some of the benefits that come from all your hard work but it’s prudent to spend below your income.   Avoid the temptation to live an extravagant lifestyle and compete with your neighbors, colleagues and friends.  Instead, take pride in following a solid financial plan by saving for the future to achieve greater financial freedom.

As a rule of thumb, save or invest at least 10 – 20% of your income and maintain a buffer of 4 to 6 months of expenses to cover emergencies or a change in your ability to earn a living.  Try to keep your housing expenses below 28% of your gross income; this includes your mortgage payment, insurance and taxes.  Avoid systematically increasing your expenses.  Give yourself some breathing room in case you want or need to make a career change.  Save for the future and keep your options open.  As your income rises automatically put a larger portion into savings and retirement.

To keep expenses under control, examine what is important to you and set some priorities.  You have worked hard and you deserve some of the nice things in life but spend your money on things or experiences that genuinely make you happy.   If you want a really nice house you may decide to spend less on vehicles, vacations and clothing.  If you love taking extravagant vacations consider buying a smaller home and less expensive used vehicles.  Never buy on impulse – always look for ways to save money on the purchase of things you decide are important to you.  

Prioritize your spending to live below your means, save for the future and focus on what truly brings you joy.

Financial Pitfalls to Avoid

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Below are some common pitfalls that I have observed over the last seventeen years as a financial planner.  You may have a smoother journey toward reaching your financial goals if you can avoid some of the hazards along the way.

Living Beyond Your Means – Take the time to review your monthly expenses and compare them to your income.   Establish a budget where you spend less than you earn.  A good way to deal with unforeseen financial issues is to always save at least 10% of your income and avoid unnecessary debt.

No Emergency Fund – Everyone should maintain an emergency fund of at least three months of expenses.  This should be higher if you don’t have a lot of job security or your income fluctuates.  Without an emergency fund, large unexpected expenses can quickly throw you into a negative debt spiral.

Too Much Debt – Avoiding debt is a mindset.  There is good debt and bad debt – it may be wise to secure a low interest, tax deductible mortgage when purchasing a home.  This enables you to start building equity and reap the benefit of appreciation as the value of your home increases.  However, it is generally not advisable to finance personal items such as furniture and appliances.  If you can’t pay cash, you should probably wait and save up for the purchase.   Avoid credit cards if you can’t pay off the entire balance at the end of the month.  

Overspending on Vehicles – Financing the purchase of a new vehicle can negatively impact your monthly budget.  I have seen clients and friends take on car payments in excess of their home mortgage.  Vehicles are depreciating assets and they are not a good investment.  When possible you should buy a used vehicle and save your money to purchase your car with cash.  Unless you have a lot of disposable income, minimize your vehicle expenses and buy with functionality in mind.

Putting Kids Through College at the Expense of Retirement – I know you love your kids and you want to give them a good start in life but don’t sacrifice your retirement.  There are many ways to minimize college expenses and finance a college education.  You can’t take out a loan to finance your retirement.

Get Rich Schemes – I’ve heard them all – every few months someone will ask me about some new product or investment scheme that promises low risk, double digit returns.  There is no free lunch, if it sounds too good to be true, it is! 

Emotional Reaction to Movements in Market – Stocks are long term investments, you need to be willing and able to ride out the fluctuations in the market.   Over long periods of time, the stock market has trended upward; however, there will be periods with negative returns.  Avoid the natural tendency to react emotionally to market downturns.  Stay the course and follow your long term plan.

Selling Home May be Better Option Than Renting

 

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Jane M. Young CFP, EA

 

It’s time to move but you hate to sell your house when the market is down.  Maybe you should rent your house for a few years? Or, on second thought, maybe not.

There are many factors to consider before deciding to rent your home.  Do you have the temperament and the time to be a landlord?  Are you comfortable with the idea of having someone else living in your home?  Do you want to manage the rental yourself or do you plan to hire a property manager?  If you manage the property yourself do you have time to learn about fair housing laws, code requirements, lease agreements, escrow requirements and eviction procedures?  Who will take care of repairs and maintenance and are you ready for tenant calls in the middle of the night?  If this sounds a bit daunting, a property manager may be your best option.  A property manager will cost you about 10% of the rent.  Be sure to include this in your cash flow analysis.

Before renting your home do a realistic cash flow analysis.   Add up your projected expenses and deduct them from your projected rental income to see if renting will result in a profit or a loss.  If you project a loss, does your projected appreciation on the home while it’s rented compensate you for the time and money it will cost you? Do you have funds to cover a negative cash flow?  Your expenses may include your mortgage payment, property taxes, insurance, home owner’s association dues, maintenance and repairs, legal and accounting fees and property management fees.  A rule of thumb for maintenance and repairs is about 1 – 2% of the market value of your home, depending on the home’s condition.   You may need to spend money up front to attract good quality tenants.

When calculating your rental income, you need to decrease your projected rental income by about 8% to allow for vacancies.  In Colorado the average rental vacancy rate has been around 7-9 percent over the last five years, based on U.S. Census data.  When a renter moves or is evicted it can take several months to get a new renter in place.

If you rent you can take a tax deduction for depreciation against your rental income.  To calculate your annual depreciation, take the value of your home, on the date you begin renting, less the value of land and divide it by 27.5.  Unfortunately, this is just a temporary gift from the IRS.  When your home is sold you must recapture all of the depreciation at 25%.

Other potential drawbacks to renting your home include the possibility of major damage inflicted by a tenant, drawn out eviction processes, negligence or safety lawsuits and costly maintenance issues.

An additional consideration, if you have a capital gain on your home, is the loss of the capital gain exemption of $250,000 for individuals and $500,000 for a couple if you haven’t lived in your home for 2 or the last 5 years.

Stay The Course! Ten Steps to Help You Through Uncertain Financial Times

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Jane M. Young, CFP, EA

1. Don’t react emotionally! This will result in a constant cycle of buying high and selling low. Once you sell, you lock in your losses. Stay the course and focus on what you can control.

2. Make sure you have an emergency fund of three to six months of expenses.

3. Evaluate your asset allocation to be sure it is consistent with the timeframe in which you need to withdraw money. The stock market is a long term investment; you should never have short term money in the stock market. Make adjustments to your allocation based on your long term goals and need for liquidity not on fear.

4. Maintain a well diversified portfolio.

5. Pay-off credit cards and high interest consumer debt. Be wary of variable rate loans, lines of credit and mortgages. The downgrade in the U.S. credit rating could hasten an increase in interest rates.

6. Get your personal finances in order. It’s always a good idea to understand your spending and keep expenses in line with your income and financial goals. This is a good time to tighten your belt to be prepared for unexpected emergencies.

7. Use dollar cost averaging to invest new money into the stock market. Volatility in the stock market creates great buying opportunities.

8. Don’t get caught up in the media hype. They are in the business to sell newspapers, magazines and television commercials. Avoid the new hot asset class they are trying to promote this week. Sound investment advice is boring and doesn’t sell newspapers.

9. Take steps to secure or improve your income stream. Are you performing up to speed at work? Are you getting along with co-workers? Should you take some classes to keep your skills current? Are you underemployed or under paid for your education and experience? Consider a second job to pay down excess debt.

10. Stay calm, be patient and focus on making sure your financial plan meets your long term goals and objectives. Stay the course, this too shall pass.

10 Tips for Financial Success

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Jane M. Young CFP, EA

1. Set Goals –
Review your personal values, develop a personal strategic plan, establish specific goals for the next three years and identify action steps for the coming year.

2. Understand Your Current Situation –
Review your actual expenses over the last year and develop a budget or a cash flow plan for the next 12 months. Compare your expenses and your income to better understand your cash flow situation. Are you’re spending habits aligned with your goals? Can or should you be saving more?

3. Have sufficient Liquidity –
Maintain an emergency fund equal to at least four months of expenses in a fully liquid account. Additionally, I recommend having a secondary emergency fund equal to another three months of expenses in semi-liquid investments. Increase your liquidity if you have above average volatility in your life due to job instability, rental properties or other risk factors.

4. Always save at least 10% of your income –
Regardless of whether you are saving to fund your emergency fund or retirement you should always pay yourself first by saving at least 10% of your income. Most of us need to be saving closer to 15% to meet our retirement needs.

5. Pay-off Credit Cards and Consumer Debt –
Learn the difference between bad debt (credit cards) and good debt (fixed-rate home mortgage). Avoid the bad debt and take advantage of the leveraging power of good debt.

6. Take Advantage of the Leveraging Power of Owning Your Home –
Once you have established an emergency fund and have paid off your bad debt start saving for a down payment to purchase your own home.

7. Fully Fund Your Retirement Accounts be a tax smart investor –
Participate in tax advantaged retirement programs for which you qualify. Maximize your Roth IRA and 401k contribution take full advantage of any company match on your 401k. If you are self-employed consider a SEP or Simple plan. Always select investment vehicles that provide the most beneficial tax solution while meeting your investment objectives.

8. Be an Investor, Not a Trader. Don’t time the market and don’t let emotions drive your investment decisions –
Investing in the stock market is a long term endeavor, forecasting the short-term movement of the stock market is fruitless. Avoid emotional reactions to headlines and short-term events. Don’t overreact to sensationalistic journalists or chase the latest investment trends. You can establish a defensive position by maintaining a well diversified portfolio custom tailored to your unique situation. Slow and steady wins the race!
“Far more money has been lost by investors in preparing for corrections, or anticipating corrections, than has been lost in the corrections themselves.”  -Peter Lynch, author and former mutual fund manager with Fidelity Investments

9. Don’t Invest in anything you don’t understand and be aware of high fees and penalties –
If it sounds too good to be true and you just can’t get your head around it, don’t invest in it! If you want to invest in complicated products, read the fine print. Be aware of commissions, fees and surrender charges. Be especially wary of products with a contingent deferred sales charge. There is no free lunch, if you are being promised above market returns there is probably a catch. Keep in mind that contracts are written to protect the insurance or investment company not the investor.

10. Diversify, Diversify, Diversify – rebalance annually –
It is impossible to predict fluctuations in the market or to select the next great stock. However, you can hedge your bets by maintaining a well diversified portfolio. Establish an asset allocation that is aligned with your goals, investment timeframe and risk tolerance. You should have a good mix of fixed income and equity based investments. Your equity investments should be spread over a wide variety of large, small, domestic and international companies and industries. Re-balance your portfolio on an annual basis to stay diversified and weed out any underperforming investments.

Attend a Financial Fireside Chat with Jane and Linda on December 2nd to discuss “Year End Financial Planning Tips and Money Saving Ideas for the Holidays”

 

You and a guest are invited to a Financial Fireside Chat with Jane and Linda at our office, from 7:30 – 9:00 am on Thursday, December 2nd to discuss “Year End Financial Planning Tips and Money Saving Ideas for the Holidays.”

A Financial Fireside chat is an informal discussion over coffee and donuts, where our clients and guests can learn about various financial topics in a casual non-threatening environment. This is free of charge and purely educational. There will be absolutely no sales of products or services during this session. We will provide plenty of time for informal discussion.

The Fireside Chat will be held at the Pinnacle Financial Concepts, Inc. offices at 7025 Tall Oak Drive, Suite 210. Please RSVP with Judy at 260-9800.

We are looking forward to seeing you on Thursday, December 2nd to learn about and discuss some great year end financial planning ideas.

A Money Moment with Jane – What Are You Spending Today?

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By Jane M. Young, CFP, EA

The first step to any solid financial plan is understanding your current situation. How much money is remaining after paying your non-discretionary expenses? If you don’t know, then you need to review your expenses over the last few months to better understand your spending habits. How much do you spend on non-discretionary items and how much do you spend on discretionary items. Are you happy with how you are spending your money? Are you saving as much as you could? Are you spending too much on frivolous items? Do your spending habits align with your goals? Have you set some financial goals?

Your Money Bus is Coming to Colorado Springs

Your Money Bus is coming to Colorado Springs.

                               Get free professional advice, no strings attached

It’s never too late to secure your financial future.

Re: Free Non-profit Financial Education Event – Please share with friends, family and business associates.

All of us have family; friends and colleagues who are struggling to save money, eliminate debt and find jobs. Please share with them the opportunity to meet for a free one-on-one with local independent financial advisors when the national Your Money Bus Tour rolls into Colorado Springs on July 8th and 9th. Pinnacle Financial Concepts, Inc. is coordinating the Colorado Springs stop of this non-profit tour, visiting more that 25 cities. We will be volunteering at this event along with several other fee-only financial planning firms in town. The Your Money Bus Tour is sponsored by The National Association of Personal Financial Advisors (NAPFA) Consumer Education Foundation, TD AMERITRADE, Kiplinger’s Personal Finance magazine and FiLife.com.

The Your Money Bus Tour will stop in Colorado Springs at the Penrose Library (downtown) on July 8th from 12:00 – 7:00 and at UCCS, Lot 1 on July 9th from 12:00 – 5:00. At each stop, consumers can sit down with locally-based volunteer financial advisors to ask pressing financial questions. All Money Bus visitors will receive a free financial education kit, including a Kiplinger magazine and a budgetary workbook.

Forty percent of American families spend more than they earn and the average American with a credit file has more than $16,000 in debt, not including mortgages. We encourage people to stop byYour Money Bus to learn how to better save, eliminate debt and develop personal financial sustainability habits that will get them through and beyond these tough times.

The NAPFA Consumer Education Foundation is a 501c (3) organization committed to educating Americans on personal finance. Consumers need easy to understand information without any bias, sales, or conflicts of interest. All volunteer financial advisors are fee-only fiduciaries; nothing is being sold or promoted. This is strictly educational and free information for the public. The public is welcome to just stop by or make an appointment ahead of time.

For more information, visit www.YourMoneyBus.com and for up-to-date schedule information contact Krist Allnutt,krista.allnutt@perceptiononline.com.

Warmest Regards,

Jane M. Young, CFP, EA

The Possibility of Becoming a Widow Should be Part of Every Married Woman’s Financial Plan

Jane M. Young CFP, EA

I know this is a subject we don’t want to think about but the reality is most wives will out live their husbands. We plot and we plan all kinds of cash flow scenarios for couples to live happily ever after until they fall gently asleep in each others arms at age 100. That would be nice but life isn’t quite so predictable. Therefore as a wife, you should plan to out live your husband. This includes being ready to handle all of the arrangements and paperwork that must be handled upon death as well as long term planning for your financial needs. Below is a list of issues that should be addressed before you become a widow.

 • Select an Estate Planning Attorney who you trust and are comfortable with to draft a will and help you through the process of settling your husband’s estate.
• Draft a will and a Health Power of Attorney.
• Discuss end of life plans with each other.
• Review the beneficiary designations on IRAs, 401ks, and life insurance policies.
• Organize your financial papers so you know what you have, where you have it and who your contact is.
• Take an active role in managing your finances.
• If you are uncomfortable with finances, take some classes and read some books to educate yourself.
• If you choose to work with a Financial Planner take the time to select someone who you trust and feel comfortable with – especially when you are alone. The National Association of Personal Financial Advisors provides some good guidelines on selecting a financial planner at www.Napfa.org.
• Run some retirement planning scenarios as a widow – will you have enough money to cover your expenses if you husband predeceases you? Are you still entitled to his pension or will you receive a decreased payout?
• Does your cash flow fall short of what you need? Consider buying some term life insurance? Consider adjusting your work situation to save more money?
• What happens if one of you needs long term care? Can you cover the expense or should you consider long term care insurance?
• What happens to your health insurance when your husband dies? How much time do you have to secure health insurance in your name?   Are you entitled to Cobra?
• Establish credit in your name, get your own credit card.
• Do you have adequate emergency reserves to cover funeral expenses and several months of expenses?

The loss of a spouse is extremely difficult. Most widows feel like they are in fog for the first year. The last thing on your mind will be money but some issues will need to be addressed. Make it easier on yourself and plan ahead.

How to Save Money on European Travel

Jane M. Young, CFP, EA

I have decided to focus on a topic that is near to my heart and for which I have a great deal of first hand experience. Although in some cases you should do as I say and not as I do. I have a terrible weakness for European cafés and therefore spend too much money on meals and wine. We must choose our battles.

1.) Take the time to research air fares; it helps to be flexible on dates, times and locations. On my last trip we were able to save about $500 by trying a wide variety of routes and destinations – all within southern France. It is generally much cheaper to travel in and out of the same city and to book round trip tickets. If you need to travel one way within Europe there are several low cost, regional, airlines. If you don’t have too much luggage, consider a high speed train. I found train travel to be easy, fun, inexpensive and reliable. However, it can be difficult with a lot of luggage. It’s great for a day trip!

2.) Avoid travel during peak season, June through August. I usually travel in May or September to avoid the huge summer crowds and get better prices. Most hotels charge higher rates during the peak summer months. The service is also much better when there are fewer people to deal with. I also found that several historical sites don’t charge admission until June 1st.

3.) Save money by eating fewer meals in restaurants. Buy some bread, wine and cheese at the local grocery store and have a picnic in the park or at the beach. Reserve a hotel with a refrigerator to keep food fresh for breakfast and snacks. Most hotels offer breakfast but it can be very expensive, pick-up a baguette or a sandwich on the go and eat it as you stroll through the city. If you are limited for time, eating all your meals in a restaurant can use up a lot of valuable time.

4.) Save money when eating in restaurants by ordering the special of the day, sharing a meal or eating the seasonal local specialties. You can also save money by ordering the fixed price menu. If you are traveling to several towns in a region eat in the smaller less touristy villages. In addition to being less expensive, the food is better and the proprietors are more open. Seek out restaurants that are off the beaten path or ask a local for a restaurant recommendation. The prices will be lower, the food will be better and the ambiance will be nicer. You can eat with the Americans at home.

Save on wine by ordering a half liter or small pitcher of house wine. Most restaurants in France and Italy serve a half liter of house wine for about 5 euros; it’s the best deal going. The house wine is usually produced locally, many restaurants serve only regional wines. As they say, when in Rome….

5.) Take the time to research your lodging. You can save on lodging by staying in lesser know towns and staying in small locally owned Inns or Hotels. If you have the time, book an apartment for a week or two and take days trips from your base location. Another great way to save money is booking a business hotel over the weekend or a holiday; this can be especially helpful for airport locations.

There are several internet sites that can help you select good quality, inexpensive hotels such as Tripadvisor.com and Hotels.com. You can read reviews written by the people who have recently stayed there. A good guidebook on the region you are visiting can also be very helpful in selecting a hotel. Check out your selection with several sources to make sure the reviews are consistent.

6.) Think about what site-seeing you plan to do and what is really important to you. Admission into museums and various historical sites can be very expensive. When you visit cities with several sites that you want to see ask the tourist office if there is a museum pass or some kind of package deal that you can purchase. Be selective on what you pay to see – the inside of one mid-evil castle looks about the same as the next. You have limited time and there is so much beautiful scenery and architecture available to see absolutely free.

10 Ways to Save Money on Food

Jane M. Young, CFP, EA

1. When grocery shopping, select items from the lower shelves, the more expensive items are usually placed at eye level.

2. Stock up when durable goods that you always need go on sale. Don’t buy something you wouldn’t otherwise buy just because it’s on sale.

3. Reduce impulse purchases at the grocery store – go less frequently, make a list and eat before you go. I know, I know, those strawberry shortcake cookies, with the cream filling and chocolate swirls looked so good. But a few days later …… what was I thinking??

4. When comparing prices check the unit price not the total price. You may pay less but you are probably getting less for your money.

5. Eat smaller portions of meat – you might even lose a little weight. Meat is very expensive, use more vegetables and less meat in you recipes.

6. When eating out, eat half of your meal at the restaurant and take the rest home with you. Most restaurants serve very large portions.

7. When eating out limit yourself to one glass of wine or drink tap water instead of coffee, tea or soda. Beverages can be very expensive relative to the cost your food.

8. If you are having an entrée avoid ordering appetizers or desert at the restaurant. Have drinks and appetizers at home before you leave or coffee and desert at home after dinner.

9. Eat something at home before you go out to meet friends. Limit your order to an appetizer or a side salad to be sociable.

10. Rather than celebrating at a restaurant, organize a potluck or take turns hosting a dinner party.