Investing is Not a Competition Between Stocks and Bonds

Jane Young, CFP, EA

Many investors think of investing as a competition between investing in the stock market, interest earning investments and real estate.  Too many people take a strong stance for or against one of these three broad categories rather than embracing the advantages that each one can bring to their portfolio.  A well balanced portfolio should include some of all three with each serving a very different purpose.

All three categories will have their day in the sun depending on the investment climate.  Due to low rates, interest earning investments such as CDs, bonds and savings accounts aren’t getting much love right now.   Despite the current low rates of return, interest earning investments provide a relatively safe place to keep your short term money.  This is money needed to cover living expenses or emergencies over the next several years.  Interest earning investments provide a buffer against more volatile investments in the stock and real estate markets.   Keeping a portion of your portfolio in safer, fixed income investments can give you greater peace of mind and help you stick to your long term plan when the stock market gets rocky.  However, avoid putting too much in interest earning investments; this can make it difficult to keep up with inflation and earn the growth needed to support your retirement goals.

On the other hand, when the stock market is doing well everyone wants to get a piece of the action. Avoid overloading your portfolio with stock when the market is skyrocketing.   Investments in the stock market can provide you with long term growth and a hedge against inflation.  Historically, the stock market has trended upward and over long periods of time has outperformed other investment categories.  However, in the short term the stock market can be very unpredictable and volatile and should only be used for long term needs – money that isn’t needed for five to ten years.  Keep your short term money in interest earning investments.

Real estate serves a dual purpose for most investors, it gives us a place to live and it provides us with an asset that usually appreciates over time.   In addition to your home, as your portfolio grows, you may want to consider additional real estate investments in mutual funds or rental property.  Like the stock market, real estate should be treated as a long term investment.  The real estate market can experience extreme downturns and commonly lacks the liquidity needed to cover short term needs.

These three categories of investments have their advantages and disadvantages.  Focus on the role the asset plays in your financial plan and avoid becoming overly comfortable and confident with a single category – it’s all about balance.  The appropriate amount in each category will vary over time and is dependent on your age, your financial goals, your cash flow needs and your risk tolerance.

401k Options When You Change Jobs

Jane Young, CFP, EA

In addition to the other commotion related to changing jobs, you need to decide what to do with your 401k account.  You have four possible options; leave it with your employer, transfer it to your new employer’s plan (if allowed), transfer it to a Rollover IRA or cash it out.  Unless you’re in a dire situation, avoid withdrawing your 401k funds.  Cashing out your 401k will result in taxation of the full amount at regular income tax rates as well as a 10% early withdrawal penalty if you leave your job prior to age 55 and don’t qualify for an exception.  Additionally, you will forfeit the opportunity to earn tax deferred, compounded growth on the hard earned money you have put away.

If you have at least $5,000 in your 401k account, you should be able to leave it with your old employer.  The decision to transfer your 401k or leave it in place largely depends on the quality and variety of investment options and the fees charged by the plan.  Some 401k plans provide access to low cost institutional funds that have lower or comparable fees to those available in an IRA.  If the fees are high and your choices are limited consider moving your account.  Another downfall to leaving your 401k with your old employer can be the danger of neglecting or forgetting about it, resulting in the failure to monitor and rebalance your account.

When changing jobs you may want to consider transferring your 401k to your new employer’s plan. Again, this should only be considered if they have a wide variety of low cost investment options.  You also may find it more convenient to have all of your funds in one place.  A disadvantage to this choice is once you transfer your 401k to a new employer’s plan you may lose the option to later move it to another plan or custodian.  You are locked in if the new plan administrator makes changes to the investment offerings or fees that you don’t agree with.  Alternatively, some advantages of a 401k over an IRA include the ability to borrow against your account, as long as you remain employed, and a 401k may offer greater protection against creditors than an IRA.

Your final option is to transfer your 401k to a Rollover IRA.  A Rollover IRA can provide you with the greatest variety of investment options including mutual funds, individual stocks, bonds and CDs.  You have the freedom to choose from a wide variety of custodians including discount brokerage firms and mutual fund companies to get the best quality, selection, service and cost.  If you decide to transfer your 401k to an IRA; select a custodian, open an IRA account, and ask your 401k administrator to process a direct transfer to your new account.  To avoid negative tax consequences be sure the check is payable to the custodian, not directly to you.